Frequently Asked Questions about COVID-19 Vaccines

Want to know when you’ll be able to receive the COVID-19 vaccine?

Due to overwhelming demand, we are unable to answer individual questions about the COVID-19 vaccine. However, we provide answers to many common questions below.

Find answers to your vaccine questions or scroll down to learn more.

We appreciate your patience with this unprecedented vaccination process. Vaccine supplies remain limited, but we’re working with our local and state agency partners to boost our supply as much as possible and increase the number of appointments we can offer our patients and our community.

We are offering vaccines by appointment only

  • In accordance with current state guidelines, we are prioritizing vaccines for patients by age and certain high-risk conditions.
  • If you are an established Henry Ford patient, we will contact you by text, email or phone when you become eligible to receive a vaccine and as appointments become available. We will reach out to you based on the contact information you have provided to us to let you know when you can schedule a vaccine appointment.
  • This notification to schedule an appointment is only for you and cannot be transferred to anyone else, including your caregiver, family members or friends.
  • Appointments fill up quickly, so it’s important to schedule an appointment as soon as you receive notification that you’re able to do so. If there aren’t any available, check back as new appointments are added often.
  • If you are a Henry Ford patient and do not have an existing MyChart account, we encourage you to sign up for an account to streamline the scheduling and notification process.
  • You cannot schedule a COVID-19 vaccine appointment through your regular Henry Ford doctor or our contact center.

Know your options

Many providers are offering the vaccine, including health systems, city and county health departments, and grocery stores and pharmacy chains. The state of Michigan receives a limited supply of vaccines and then divides this supply among all of these organizations. We encourage you to explore the options and get your vaccine wherever you can when it’s your turn.

Learn more about vaccine availability in your county at the Michigan Coronavirus Vaccine site.

Last updated: February 23, 2021


COVID-19 vaccine questions and answers

Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine

Vaccine Basics

Vaccine Safety

Vaccine Side Effects

Vaccine Effectiveness


10 Myths About the COVID-19 Vaccine That Aren't True

The FDA-approved COVID-19 vaccines are both safe and effective. We talk with an infectious disease expert and debunk the rumors.

Learn More

COVID-19 Vaccines: Important Facts

We chatted with Dr. Dennis Cunningham, Dr. Allison Weinmann, and Dr. Mariam Alaka about COVID-19 vaccines, separating the science from myths and the latest on distribution.

View all of our COVID-19 vaccine videos

When can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?

Because initial vaccine supplies are limited, frontline healthcare workers were prioritized by federal and state agencies to receive the vaccine first, followed by the most vulnerable patients. This includes those at skilled nursing facilities, with certain high-risk health conditions and over age 65. Healthy adults under 65 who don’t work in healthcare or qualify as essential workers should have access to the vaccine in the coming weeks as supply increases.

Michigan has opened eligibility to  anyone 65 years old and older, plus a larger group of essential workers and first responders, including staff and teachers in K12 education, childcare providers, police officers, jail and correctional facility workers, and more.

I meet the eligibility requirements and am a Henry Ford patient. How can I get the vaccine?

It is recommended that you not mix vaccines. If your first dose was the Pfizer vaccine, your second dose should also be the Pfizer vaccine. If your first dose was the Moderna vaccine, your second dose should be the same.

At this time, Henry Ford has received supplies of both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and is administering them to employees and patients. If you receive a vaccine, the type of vaccine your were given is documented and your second dose will be that same vaccine.

There is no need to be vaccinated with another vaccine if you have received one.

We are making appointments available as soon as possible, and are prioritizing patients age 65 and older and certain high-risk patients. If you are an established Henry Ford patient who meets these eligibility criteria, we will contact you by text, email or phone as appointments become available for scheduling.

You cannot schedule a COVID-19 vaccine appointment through your regular Henry Ford doctor or our contact center.

If you are a Henry Ford patient and do not have an existing MyChart account, we encourage you to sign up for an account to streamline the scheduling and notification process.

We appreciate your patience during this unprecedented vaccine roll-out.

Why did Henry Ford change the process to schedule a COVID-19 vaccine?

We know the process has been frustrating for many of our eligible patients and the community members to schedule a COVID-19 vaccine and we thank you for your patience.

Our nation has never experienced a vaccine effort like this and in such a short period of time.

As we move through the coming months, we are expecting to receive enough vaccine for everyone who wants it. But in the near future we must first vaccinate those persons most vulnerable to this virus. For this reason, we recently updated our COVID-19 vaccine scheduling process.

When you become eligible to receive a vaccine, and we have adequate vaccine supplies and appointment slots, we will contact you through your Henry Ford MyChart, a text message or by telephone, based on the contact information you have provided us in your medical record. You cannot schedule a COVID-19 vaccine appointment through your Henry Ford doctor or our Contact Center.

Will teachers, frontline essential workers, and others who are eligible now be contacted to receive the vaccine?

Unfortunately, Henry Ford does not have employment information available for this purpose. K-12 teachers, frontline essential workers, and others who are eligible to receive the vaccine due to their occupation will not be contacted by Henry Ford for an appointment based on their occupation. Patients are contacted when they become eligible due to their age or a health condition.

For current eligibility in Michigan visit, If you are eligible based on your occupation and have not been contacted by the health system, Henry Ford encourages you to seek other options where you can receive the vaccine sooner.

How can I get a Henry Ford MyChart account?

If you are a Henry Ford patient and do not have a Henry Ford MyChart account, we encourage you to sign up for an account.

A Henry Ford MyChart account makes it easier for us to contact you and for you to schedule an appointment when it is your time to get the vaccine.

Register for Henry Ford MyChart today.

What do I need to know before my vaccine appointment? Do I need to prepare?

Here are a few things to keep in mind before you get your vaccine:

  • The vaccine is given with a needle in the upper arm, so wear clothing that allows your upper arm to be easily exposed, like a short-sleeve or sleeveless shirt.
  • Eat your normal meal or a snack (depending on the time of day) and drink plenty of liquids before coming for your vaccine.
  • For maximum immunity, the COVID-19 vaccine requires two doses. At your appointment for the first dose, you will need to make the appointment to receive your second dose at the same location in 3 weeks (if you received Pfizer) or 4 weeks (if you received Moderna). So, you may want to bring your calendar with you or check your availability beforehand, so you are able to find a convenient time within the recommended time frame. Keeping this follow-up appointment is very important.
  • Allergic reactions are possible with any vaccine, though they are rare. For your safety, you will be asked to remain in a designated waiting area for about 15 minutes for monitoring. If you’ve had a prior allergic reaction to an injectable medicine or vaccine or any of the ingredients in the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, you may be asked to wait 30 minutes. The waiting area will be socially distanced.
  • Mask wearing is required, and strict safety protocols are in place at all facilities providing the vaccine.
  • You may experience side effects after getting the vaccine, but don’t take acetaminophen (Tylenol) or other pain relievers before your appointment. It may lessen the effect of vaccine. If you experience side effects after the vaccine, it’s recommended to take Tylenol, if needed, then.

How will my vaccination be documented?

Your electronic medical record will be updated with all the details each time you receive a dose of the vaccine, including which vaccine you received and when.

You will also be given a vaccination card at the time of your first dose. Please keep this card with you when you return for your second dose. You should also keep it for your own records.

Can I get more than one kind of vaccine?

It is recommended that you not mix vaccines. If your first dose was the Pfizer vaccine, your second dose should also be the Pfizer vaccine. If your first dose was the Moderna vaccine, your second dose should be the same.  

At this time, Henry Ford has received supplies of both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and is administering them to employees and patients. If you receive a vaccine, the type of vaccine your were given is documented and your second dose will be that same vaccine. 

There is no need to be vaccinated with another vaccine if you have received one.

If I participated in a clinical trial for the vaccine, am I eligible to receive early vaccination?

Henry Ford is a site for the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccine trials. The clinical trial team will communicate with all participants directly, including Henry Ford team members who participated, to help them make an informed decision about next steps.

If you are participating in either vaccine trial and have questions or concerns, please contact the research team.

Questions about your individual decision to get the vaccine should be addressed with your primary care physician.

What’s happening with COVID-19 vaccines right now?

Two companies, Pfizer and Moderna, have received emergency use authorization for their COVID-19 vaccines from the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). Distribution of these approved vaccines is underway.  

Since the first supply of vaccines will be limited, health systems like ours need to plan how to store and distribute the vaccines we receive. We’ve been carefully developing plans that follow the guidelines from the FDA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state agencies.

What is the COVID-19 vaccine, and how will it be given?

Both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use a new technology known as messenger RNA (mRNA), which causes the body to make a viral protein that activates the immune system to fight off the coronavirus by mimicking the infection.

The vaccine does not contain live virus and cannot cause COVID-19.

Recipients need to receive two shots spaced several weeks apart for full protection.

The Pfizer vaccine requires ultra-cold storage. Henry Ford has secured the appropriate freezers to store these particular vaccines. This is one reason why we are limiting locations where we distribute the vaccine at this time. We must ensure proper storage and transport of the vaccines, while maximizing the number of patients we are able to vaccinate. 

How did vaccines get approved so quickly?

Production of the COVID-19 vaccines began sooner than is typical. Normally, production starts after a pharmaceutical company completes the development stage for a vaccine, which includes rigorous testing for safety and effectiveness. Every vaccine goes through a series of reviews and approvals by the FDA and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), among others. In the case of COVID-19 vaccines, the federal government invested taxpayer dollars to encourage pharmaceutical companies to start production before the development stage completed.

The vaccines are still going through the same rigorous testing, review and approval process to establish safety and effectiveness.

Why is the vaccination process taking so long?

This is the largest vaccination effort of its kind that has ever been undertaken, and it differs in many key respects from what people are used to when getting the flu vaccine, for example. Henry Ford alone is expected to deliver more than a million individual doses of this two-dose vaccine, which means making more than 2 million vaccination appointments over the next several months. By comparison, this is more than 50% of the 3.7 million outpatient visits Henry Ford patients make across our system in an entire year.

It is also a uniquely complex, community-wide vaccination campaign that requires an unprecedented level of partnership and collaboration, especially as initial supplies remain low. We are working closely with our local, state and other partners, and following CDC and state guidelines, to roll out vaccinations to patients and members. Many of our local county leaders are also rolling out robust plans to vaccinate vulnerable patients. Additionally, there are several retail organizations that are tasked in this collaborative effort as well.

Does the vaccine mean that other safety measures and restrictions can be relaxed?

Vaccines are one important piece of the puzzle in combating this pandemic and will eventually help life return to normal. It will take many months before a large portion of the population is able to be vaccinated.

In the meantime, reducing the cases of COVID-19 needs to continue to be our priority. Efforts like wearing masks, social distancing, avoiding large gatherings and practicing hand hygiene remain essential to reduce the spread.

We don’t know yet whether you can still be a carrier of COVID-19 and transmit it to someone else, unknowingly, after being vaccinated. So, please continue to follow state and national safety guidelines, even after you have been vaccinated.

Is one type of vaccine better than the other?

Both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are safe and effective—their differences in effectiveness are very small. Both vaccines can have side effects (such as soreness, fatigue and chills), but one does not necessarily produce more intense side effects than the other. You need only one type of vaccine (whether Pfizer or Moderna), and either one is equally recommended. Each require two doses, and both doses should be the same. So, if your first dose is Pfizer, your second dose should also be Pfizer, and vice versa.

Will the vaccine allow me to travel internationally without getting a COVID-19 test?

At this time, people who have been vaccinated are not exempt from this requirement. Even if you have received the vaccine, you are required to provide a negative COVID-19 test, or documentation of recovery from COVID-19, to re-enter the U.S. If you are planning to travel to a foreign country, be sure to check that nation’s requirements. Visit the CDC web site for details or read the President's Executive Order.

Can we be sure the vaccine will be safe? Will it be safe for me?

We understand that there may be concern over the safety and effectiveness of a COVID-19 vaccine. We have closely examined the FDA’s process for overseeing the many different vaccine trials. The FDA is required to make decisions that are guided by science and data regarding authorization or approval of COVID-19 vaccines. We have confidence in the FDA’s approval process and are committed to safety, quality and high reliability.

You cannot develop COVID-19 from these vaccines.

Does the vaccine cause a severe allergic reaction?

Any vaccine or medication has the potential to cause a severe allergic reaction.

The FDA currently recommends that you avoid the vaccine if you have had prior severe allergic reactions to other vaccines, and avoid getting the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine if you have had reactions to the ingredients of that particular vaccine.

If you have a severe allergic reaction to medication or therapies given as injections into muscle or a vein, you may have an increased risk of a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine. You may receive the vaccine, but you need to stay in the location where you receive the vaccine for 30 minutes after vaccination for observation and for medical treatment, if a reaction occurs.

The Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices believes it is safe to receive the vaccine if you have severe reactions to food, pets, environmental allergies or medications taken by mouth.

It is important to remember that no effective medicine is without side effects. Therefore, the risks must be balanced with the benefits.

Review this Pfizer vaccine fact sheet or Moderna vaccine fact sheet for more information, including a list of ingredients.

If I’ve had COVID-19, can I still get the vaccine?

Evidence suggests that if you already tested positive for COVID-19, you have likely developed specific antibodies in your blood which may provide some level of natural immune defense. Research is still being done both in the U.S. and globally to determine how long that immune response lasts.

Preliminary research suggests that the vaccine will give you better protection than having had the virus. The CDC recommends that those who have had COVID-19 get the vaccine.

Can I get the vaccine if I’ve had convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19?

If you have had COVID and received either convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies, you should not receive the vaccine for 90 days as these drugs may interfere with its effectiveness.

If I have an underlying health condition, can I get the vaccine?

There is currently no data that suggests having an underlying health condition is a reason to avoid getting the vaccine.

In fact, those with an underlying illness or health condition are at an increased risk of developing severe side effects or hospitalization due to COVID-19.

If you have any condition that weakens your immune system, you may not have protection against COVID-19 infection. However, it is safe to receive the vaccine if you are immunocompromised. For instance, if you are infected with HIV, are on immunosuppressive medication, or a transplant recipient, there are no safety concerns but you may not get as strong a protective response.

You should address your individual concerns with your primary medical provider.

I just had a flu shot (or another type of vaccination). Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine right away too?

At this time, the CDC recommends that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines – Pfizer and Moderna vaccines – should be administered alone with a minimum interval of 14 days before or after any other vaccine, including the flu shot. The only exception is the tetanus vaccine for treatment of a wound or other injury. If the tetanus vaccine has not been given in the past five years, the tetanus vaccine should be given.

In addition, TB testing should be done prior to COVID-19 vaccination. If a COVID-19 mRNA vaccination has already occurred, the test should be delayed until four weeks after completion of the two-dose COVID-19 vaccine.

Does the vaccine have any side effects?

Both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines can cause side effects that are similar to symptoms associated with other vaccines, such as injection site pain in the arm, fever, muscle pain, chills and headache. The frequency of these side effects may be greater than with other vaccines. While the symptoms may be uncomfortable, and at times intense, they should go away within 24-48 hours. Most people are able to perform their normal daily activities.

Common side effects include sore arm, headache, fatigue, lymph node swelling, nausea and/or fever, which may be worsen after the second dose. This is an indication that the vaccine is working. (That said, if you don’t experience side effects, you should not be concerned. The same level of protection is expected.)

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) may be taken after vaccination to help with any symptoms you have. (It is not recommended that you take it before getting the shot, however, as it may somewhat lessen the effects of the vaccine.) If symptoms persist, please consult your primary care provider.

If I have side effects after receiving the vaccine, am I contagious to those around me?

If you have side effects after vaccination, this does not mean you are in any way contagious to your family or community. You cannot develop COVID-19 from these vaccines.

We don’t know yet whether you can still be a carrier of COVID-19 and transmit it to someone else, unknowingly, after being vaccinated.

Efforts like wearing masks, social distancing, avoiding large gatherings and practicing hand hygiene remain essential to reduce the spread, even after you have been vaccinated.

Are side effects from the second dose worse than the first?

Yes, they tend to be more significant after the second dose. However, only 2% percent of people feel ill enough to curtail their usual activities. Symptoms usually last 1-2 days. Generally, 85% of people have some redness, swelling or pain at the injection site. Other symptoms include:

  • Fatigue: 63%
  • Headache: 55%
  • Muscle aches/pain: 38%
  • Joint pain: 23%
  • Fever: 14.2%

Acetaminophen (rather than NSAIDs) is recommended to help ease symptoms after vaccination. Do not take acetaminophen before vaccination to prevent side effects – it may blunt the immune response.

How long does protection against COVID-19 last once I receive the vaccine?

We do not know how long protection will last following vaccination. But further information from ongoing clinical trials will become public over time. In comparison, immunity to two similar coronaviruses, SARS and MERS, lasted at least 3 years.

Do I have to take both doses of the vaccine?

Yes. It is very important that you return for your second dose of the vaccine in order to receive full protection from the vaccine. An appointment will be scheduled for you for this second dose at the time of your first injection. Please also remember that side effects may be more severe with your second dose.

If the vaccine is not 100% effective, can I still get COVID-19?

The vaccines with emergency approval from the FDA appear to provide significant protection against COVID-19, but they do not offer 100% protection. Preliminary data suggests the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines offer 95% protection against infection.

How long does it take for full protection?

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines both require two doses, spaced about a few weeks apart. (For Pfizer, the second dose is recommended 3 weeks after the first dose. For Moderna, it is recommended 4 weeks after the first.) You need to have both doses to achieve the highest level of protection.

It typically takes a few weeks for the body to build immunity after vaccination. That means it’s possible a person could be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 just before or just after vaccination. Continue to practice social distance, wear masks and wash your hands.

Why do I still need to wear a mask and social distance after I’ve been vaccinated?

The vaccine clinical trials tracked how many vaccinated people became sick with COVID-19. That means it is possible for some vaccinated people to become infected without developing symptoms and if they did, transmit the virus to others. Until experts know more about whether vaccinated people can spread the virus, it is important for everyone to continue wearing masks, washing hands, staying six feet away from others when possible and avoiding gatherings. We expect recommendations for vaccinated people will be made in the future.

Are the vaccines effective against the new variants?

COVID-19 variants are emerging across the U.S. and in Michigan. The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines appear to be effective against the highly contagious strains from the U.K., South Africa, and Brazil, but the level of protection may not be as high as it is for the original strain of the virus. These findings are preliminary. Pfizer and Moderna, along with other vaccine manufacturers, are conducting ongoing research, which includes testing if an additional shot will “boost” effectiveness against these variants.

Scientists are continuing to monitor the evolution of the U.K., South Africa and Brazil variants. More data on how effective the vaccines in preventing them is expected in the coming weeks. While research continues, it remains even more important to wear masks, socially distance, wash hands frequently and avoid gatherings.


If I’m pregnant or of child-bearing age, is it safe for me to get the vaccine?

Pregnant and breastfeeding women have been excluded from the leading vaccine clinical trials so far, including those from Pfizer, Moderna, Janssen, AstraZeneca and Novavax.

This is not unusual as vaccine clinical trials typically don’t enroll participants who are pregnant or lactating until the vaccine has been shown to be safely tolerated in people who are not pregnant.

There are current studies on the COVID vaccine in which pregnant women are part of the study pool. We should have that data in the coming year.

Many experts believe that while no COVID-19 vaccines have been tested on pregnant women, the virus itself may pose greater risks both to the pregnant woman and to the fetus. Pregnant women should talk with their doctor to weigh the risk and benefit of the vaccine versus COVID-19 infection.

Does the vaccine have any effect on fertility?

There is an internet rumor that the vaccine could affect fertility. There is no evidence or scientific concern that the vaccine could impact fertility.

The vaccine mimics infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. It targets a single protein of the virus, called the spike protein. The vaccine does not contain live virus.

Research studies have shown that getting COVID-19 (not the vaccine) may affect fertility. In short, the virus itself may pose a greater risk to fertility than the vaccine.

If I’m breastfeeding, can I still get the vaccine?

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices states that breastfeeding women may receive the vaccine.

It is not known if the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is passed through breast milk. Even if the mRNA is in the breast milk, there is no known harm to feeding an infant.

It is also important to remember that live viral vaccines — measles, mumps and rubella vaccine — are routinely given to lactating women. But keep in mind that the COVID vaccine does not contain any live virus.

Show Me

View All News
View All Blog Posts

Schedule Appointment Online

Please call 911 if you have an emergency or urgent medical question.

If you are having symptoms of COVID-19, for your safety, please select a MyChart video visit on demand or call your primary care provider. For symptoms of COVID-19, please visit our website

Please note: Appointments for the COVID-19 vaccine can ONLY be scheduled through the COVID-19 vaccine button on eligible Henry Ford MyChart accounts at this time. Due to limited supply, they are only available at select locations and by appointment only. Get more details here.

Henry Ford Health System is committed to ensuring our Deaf or hard-of-hearing patients and visitors have equal access to all services. We provide the appropriate auxiliary aids and services, including qualified sign language interpreters, TTYs and other assistive listening devices, at no cost. To request assistance, call 313-916-1896 or email

Schedule Appointment for