Calluses are hard, dead skin patches that develop on the sole of the foot. Calluses often are caused by poorly fitting shoes or walking on hard surfaces.
Flat feet (also known as pes planus or flatfoot) is a common condition in which the foot has no arch. Some people are born with flat feet while others develop it over time. Treatment varies based on the severity of the condition.
Ganglion cysts are benign (non-cancerous) swellings -- usually no bigger than a pea -- that form under the skin. They’re usually painless and harmless, but if you notice one on your foot, see a doctor to rule out other conditions. In most cases, these cysts require no treatment. But if your cyst is painful, the doctor can drain it or surgically remove it.
High arches are when the arch of your foot (the curvature from the big toe to the heel) is exceptionally high. This condition is also known as claw foot or pes cavus. High arches can be related to a neurological condition and may be painful because the arches often are stiff, placing more pressure on the heel and under the toes. Your doctor may order X-rays, an electromyography (EMG) test, or nerve studies to diagnose the condition. Treatment typically involves arch inserts or supportive insoles. Severe cases may require surgery.
Neuromas are damaged or injured nerves. These often develop in the crooks of the three toes between your big and little toes. Pain is caused by pressure in the affected area, and patients report burning, tingling, or numbness. Tight shoes are a common culprit of neuroma. Treatment usually involves shoe modification and cortisone injections. Surgery can help more severe cases, and patients generally notice dramatic pain relief afterward.
This condition involves inflammation of the tendons around the small, round bones that lead to the big toe. Sesamoid injuries are common in people who participate in high-impact activities, such as dancing, running, and aerobics, but often have no clear cause. Most people experience pain relief with rest and wearing shoes with low heels, stiff soles, and soft inner padding. Some people need to wear a cast, but surgery is rarely necessary.